Ma `lumot

Uxlash paytida miyaning javob berish chastotalari


Men buni so'rash uchun to'g'ri joy ekanligiga ishonchim komil emas, lekin biologiya eng mos keladiganga o'xshardi.

Men uxlayotganimda miyaning qaysi chastotalarga eng yaxshi javob berishini bilishga harakat qilaman.

Buning sababi yaqinda men ma'ruzada qatnashdim, unda aytilganidek, miya past chastotalarni/chuqur tovushlarni yaxshiroq eshitadi, masalan, yong'in signallari biz o'ylagandek samarali bo'lmasligi mumkin.

Ammo men eslayman, "Katta portlash nazariyasi" epizodi bor edi, ular aytganidek, baland ovoz baland ovozda eshitiladi, masalan, chaqalog'ining yig'lashiga javoban. Endi men bu shunchaki teledastur ekanligini bilaman, lekin menimcha, ularda bu izohga asos bo'lishi kerak, chunki ularning ilmiy maslahatchilari bor, bu ham mantiqiyroq ko'rinadi.

Kimdir to'g'ri yoki yaxshiroq ekanligini biladimi, lekin menga yordam berish uchun tadqiqot yo'nalishini ko'rsatishi mumkin.


Siz bilganingizdek, uxlash ikkita keng toifaga bo'lingan: REM (Tez ko'z harakati) va NREM (ko'zning tez harakatlanmasligi). NREM yana 3 bosqichga bo'linadi (ma'lumotnoma). Ovozning ma'lum bir chastotasiga duch kelganingizda, siz uyquning qaysi bosqichida ekanligingizni hech qachon bilmaysiz. Sizning turli uyqu davrlarida sizning turli tovushlarga javobingiz farq qiladi.

NREM uyqusining hozirgi 3 bosqichi Amerika Uyqu Tibbiyot Akademiyasi (AASM) tomonidan 2007 yilda yangilangan. uyquning turli davrlarida buzilishlarning ta'siri

1 -bosqich - bu hali ham uyqu fazasi bo'lib, undan odamni uyg'otish eng oson.

2 -bosqich uyqusida bo'lgan odamlar yorug'lik yoki shovqinga, agar u juda yorqin yoki baland bo'lmasa, hech qanday munosabat bildirmaydi.

3 -bosqichda mushaklar hali ham tonusga ega va uxlayotganlar tashqi stimullarga juda kam javob berishadi, agar ular juda kuchli bo'lmasa yoki alohida shaxsiy ma'noga ega bo'lmasa (masalan, kimdir sizning ismingizni chaqirsa yoki chaqaloq quloqdan yig'lab yuborsa). Ona).

4 -bosqich - uyqu bosqichi, u tananing tuzatish ishlarining ko'p qismini bajaradi va undan odamni uyg'otish eng qiyin bo'ladi (ma'lumotnoma).

Turli darajadagi tovushlarga duchor bo'lgan uyqu paytida miya faolligini o'lchash bo'yicha o'tkazilgan tadqiqot shuni ko'rsatdiki, ba'zi odamlar 70db tovush bilan urilganidan keyin siz uyg'ongansiz, boshqalari 40-50 db gacha bo'lgan tovushlarda ham uyg'ongan. Bu uyqu buzilishi bo'lgan odamlar uchun yangi xatti -harakatlar yoki dori -darmonlarni davolashga olib kelishi mumkin.

Past chastotali tovushning uyquga ta'siri haqidagi tadqiqotlar, bu sohada ko'proq qidiruv o'tkazish zarurligini tasdiqlovchi muhim xulosaga kela olmadi. (Havola).

Erkak va ayolni uyg'otadigan turli xil tovushlar topilgani sizni qiziqtiradi. Bu erda ro'yxat mavjud. Erkak va ayolning uyqusi o'rtasidagi farqlar ushbu maqolada keltirilgan.


Delta miya to'lqinlari: 0 Gts dan 4 Gts gacha

Delta miya to'lqinlari 0 dan 4 Gts gacha (sekundiga tsikl) tebranadi va odamlar ishlab chiqaradigan eng sekin miya to'lqinlari hisoblanadi. Ular odatda uyquning chuqur bosqichlarida (3 -bosqich va 4 -bosqich) ishlab chiqariladi va yurak urishining regulyatsiyasi, buyrak va ovqat hazm qilish funktsiyasi kabi ongsiz tana jarayonlarini boshqarishda ishtirok etadi.

Bu tanaga shifo berishga yordam beradi va har xil gormonlarni, shu jumladan inson o'sish gormoni (HGH) ni turli chastotalarda chiqaradi deb o'ylashadi. Delta to'lqinlarining optimal ishlashi bilan bog'liq ko'plab afzalliklar mavjud. Bunga quyidagilar kiradi: yaxshi uxlash va immunitetning kuchayishi, shuningdek, empatiya.

Delta to'lqinlari odatda miyaning o'ng yarim sharida hosil bo'ladi va bizning ongsiz va ongsiz jarayonlarimiz bilan bog'liq. Yosh bolalarda delta faolligi ko'proq bo'ladi va biz yoshi ulg'aygan sayin delta faolligi hatto uyqu paytida ham kamayib ketadi. Siz delta holatida bo'lganingizda, sizda ongli xabardorlik yo'q.


Miya to'lqinlarining 5 chastotasi

Rasm bebrainfit.com saytidan olingan

DELTA To'lqin - delta to'lqinlari odamlarda eng sekin deb nomlanadi va ko'pincha yosh bolalar va chaqaloqlarda bo'ladi. Uyg'onish va uyg'onish yoshida delta to'lqinlarining miqdori kamayadi. Delta to'lqinlari o'zlarini uyqu paytlarida ko'proq namoyon qiladi. Odamlar chuqur tiklanish uyqusini muhokama qilishganda, ular delta to'lqinlari eng yaqqol ko'rinadigan vaqtni nazarda tutadilar. Bu to'lqinlar, shuningdek, to'g'ri hazm qilish, muntazam yurak urishi va to'g'ri qon bosimi bilan o'zaro bog'liq. Delta to'lqinlarining ba'zi muhim xususiyatlari:

Delta to'lqinlarining chastota diapazoni 0 Gts dan 4 Gts gacha (beshta chastotaning eng sekinlari)

Odamlar bu chastotada tiklovchi/yoshartiruvchi uyqu paytida bo'ladi

o Uyqu paytida ular ko'payadi

Delta to'lqinlarining maqbul darajasi yaxshi uyqudan keyin tinchlanish hissi, sog'ayish qobiliyati, immunitet tizimining salomatligi

Delta to'lqinining juda ozligi uyqudan keyin charchaganini ko'rsatishi mumkin

Delta to'lqinining ko'pligi o'zini o'quv qiyinchiliklari, diqqatni jamlay olmaslik/ muammoni hal qila olmaslik va og'ir DEHB sifatida namoyon qilishi mumkin.

THETA To'lqin- teta to'lqinlari keyingi eng sekin to'lqin chastotasi bo'lib, kunduzgi tushlar yoki engil uyqu shaklida namoyon bo'ladi. Bu to'lqinlar chuqur va chuqur his -tuyg'ularni his qilish qobiliyati bilan bog'liq. Bu to'lqin tabiiy sezgi yoki ijodkorlik bilan bog'liq. Delta to'lqini singari, u ham uyquni tiklashda muhim rol o'ynaydi, lekin chuqur emas.

o Teta to'lqinlarining chastota diapazoni 4 Gts dan 8 Gts gacha

o Odamlar tez -tez og'ir dam olish yoki engil uyqu paytida shunday tezlikda bo'ladi

o Teta to'lqinlarining maqbul darajasi odamlarga hissiy aloqalarni o'rnatish, dam olish, ijodkorlik va sezgi ko'rsatish imkonini beradi

Teta to'lqinining juda oz qismi o'zini bezovtalanish, stress yoki hissiy nuqtai nazardan hissiy nuqsonlar bilan namoyon qilishi mumkin.

Teta to'lqinining haddan tashqari ko'pligi tanada o'zini DEHB, e'tibor bera olmaslik, giperaktivlik va dürtüsel qaror qabul qilish kabi namoyon qilishi mumkin.

ALFA To'lqin- alfa to'lqinlar keyingi. Bu bizning ongli va ongli ongimiz o'rtasida ko'prik hosil qiluvchi to'lqinlar. Ularni "harakatsiz" to'lqinlar deb atash mumkin, chunki ular 5 xil chastotaning o'rtasida. Agar biror kishi mulohaza yuritayotgan yoki meditatsiya qilayotgan bo'lsa, bu to'lqinlar. Aerobik mashqlarni bajarishda ham ular qayd etilgan.

o Alfa to'lqinlarining chastota diapazoni 9 Gts dan 13 Gts gacha

o Odamlar uyg'onish paytida bu chastotada

o Alfa to'lqinning optimal darajasi odamlarga dam olish va xotirjamlikni saqlashga imkon beradi

Alfa to'lqinining juda oz qismi o'zini stressli, asabiy, uyqusizlik yoki OKBga chalingan odam sifatida ko'rsatishi mumkin.

o Alfa to'lqinning haddan tashqari ko'pligi o'zini xayolparast, vazifalarga diqqatni jamlay olmaslik va o'z vazifalarini bajara olmaslik kabi ko'rsatishi mumkin.

Beta to'lqin- beta to'lqin spektrda "yuqori chastotali past amplituda" deb nomlanadi va odatda uyg'onish holatida bo'ladi. Ular mantiqiy fikrlash jarayonlariga imkon beradi, shuning uchun muammolarni hal qilish va qaror qabul qilishda muhim rol o'ynaydi. To'g'ri miqdor qiyin ishlarni yoki maktab ishlarini bajarish uchun kerak. Odatda beta to'lqinlarining yuqori darajasi ko'proq tashvish va stress bilan bog'liq. Ular stimulyatorlar va qahva yordamida ko'tarilishi mumkin.

o Beta to'lqinlarning chastota diapazoni 14 dan 30 Gts gacha

Odamlar ongli fikrlash va mantiqiy fikrlash bilan shug'ullanganda, bu chastotada bo'ladi

o Beta to'lqin harakatlarining optimal darajasi odamlarga vazifalarga ongli ravishda e'tibor qaratish, muammolarni hal qilish va narsalarni eslab qolish imkonini beradi

o Beta to'lqinning juda kamligi yomon bilim, DEHB, depressiya va tush ko'rishga juda moyil bo'lib namoyon bo'ladi

o Juda ko'p to'lqinlar doimiy adrenalin, dam ololmaslik, stress va tashvish kabi namoyon bo'ladi

GAMMA To'lqin- gamma to'lqin yuqori chastotadir va kognitiv funktsiyalar uchun zarurdir. Bu ma'lumotni qayta ishlash, o'rganish va xotirada muhim rol o'ynaydi. Yangi materiallarni tushunish, eslab qolish va qayta ishlash uchun sezgi vositalaridan foydalanish gamma to'lqin mavjudligidan dalolat beradi. Gamma to'lqin faolligi pasaygan odam yangi narsalarni o'rganishda yoki mashg'ulotlarni tushunishda qiyinchiliklarga duch kelishi mumkin.

o gamma to'lqinlarining chastota diapazoni 30 Gts dan 100 Gts gacha

o Odamlar kognitiv harakatlarni bajarayotganda shu chastotada bo'ladi

o gamma to'lqin harakatining optimal darajasi odamlarga aniq fikrlashga, ma'lumotlarni qayta ishlashga, muammolarni hal qilish va mantiqdan oson foydalanishga imkon beradi

o Gamma to'lqinining juda oz qismi depressiya, o'qish nogironligi yoki DEHB ko'rinishida namoyon bo'ladi

o Gamma to'lqinining haddan tashqari ko'pligi stress, tashvish, giper-hushyorlik sifatida namoyon bo'ladi


Tadqiqot neyronlarning faolligini, uyqu paytida miyaning chiqindilarini tozalashni Altsgeymer xavfi bilan bog'liqligini taklif qiladi.

Yangi dalillar uyqu Altsgeymer kasalligining (AD) oldini olishda muhim rol o'ynaydi degan fikrni tasdiqlaydi.

Topilmalar bu erda e'lon qilindi PLOS biologiyasi uyqu muammolari va turli xil nevrologik kasalliklar o'rtasidagi bog'liqlikni qidiradigan uyqu tadqiqotining katta tendentsiyasining bir qismidir.

Yangi hisobot markazida miyaning toksik moddalarini tozalaydigan drenaj tizimi sifatida tasvirlangan miyaning glimfatik tizimi joylashgan. Tizim asosan tunda ishlaydi, bu uyqu chiqindilarni tozalash jarayonida muhim omil ekanligini ko'rsatadi.

Entoni L. Komaroff, M. D., buni so'nggi sharhida tasvirlab bergan JAMA, Glimfatik tizim "yangi" miya omurilik suyuqligini (BOS) chiqindilarga boy bo'lgan miya bilan bog'liq chiqindilarga boy bo'lgan miya interstitsial suyuqligi (ISF) bilan birlashtiradi va uni kepakdan qon aylanishiga chiqaradi.

"Miya chiqindilarida" toksik beta-amiloid va tau oqsillari bor. Altsgeymer kasalligining sabablari hali aniqlanmagan, ammo nazariyalarga ko'ra, u oqsillarning to'planishi Altsgeymer kasalligining rivojlanishida muhim rol o'ynaydi.

Ichida PLOS biologiyasi tadqiqot, tegishli muallif Xiao Liu, t.f.d. va Pensilvaniya shtati universitetining hamkasblari miyaning global faolligini va uning toksin birikmasiga ta'sirini o'rganishdi. Ular neyronal faollikni kuzatish bunday faollik darajasi va Altsgeymer xavfi o'rtasidagi bog'liqlikni ochib beradimi, deb hayron bo'lishdi.

Liu va uning hamkasblari Altsgeymer kasalligi neyroimaging tashabbusi loyihasining ishtirokchilari bo'lgan 118 sub'ektni ro'yxatga olishdi. Ulardan 7 tasida Altsgeymer, 62 tasida engil kognitiv buzilish, 18 tasida esa xotira bilan bog'liq jiddiy muammolar borligi aniqlangan. Tadqiqotda sog'lom nazorat sifatida 31 kishi ishtirok etdi.

Miyaning global faolligi va CSF oqimini o'lchash uchun tadqiqot sub'ektlari dam olish holatida fMRI tekshiruvidan o'tdilar. Xuddi shu skanerlash yillar o'tib yakunlandi va tergovchilar topilmalarni Altsgeymerning neyrobiologik va neyropsixologik belgilari, shu jumladan beta-amiloid darajalari bilan solishtirishdi.

Ular global fMRI faolligi va CSF oqimi o'rtasidagi bog'liqlik AD patologiyasi bilan bog'liqligini aniqladilar. Neyronal faollik va CSF oqimi o'rtasidagi bog'liqlik Altsgeymerli yoki kasallik xavfi yuqori bo'lgan bemorlarda sog'lom nazoratda kuchliroq edi.

"Topilma neyrodejenerativ kasalliklarda past chastotali (& lt0,1 Gts) dam olish holatidagi neyro-fiziologik dinamikaning potentsial rolini ta'kidlaydi, ehtimol ular uyquga bog'liq holda miya omurilik suyuqligi oqimi miya toksinlarini yuvadi",-dedi Lyu. press -relizda.

Liu qo'shimcha tadqiqot global miya faoliyati va u bilan bog'liq fiziologik modulyatsiyalarning glimfatik klirens va neyrodejenerativ kasalliklarga qanday ta'sir qilishini yaxshiroq tushunishga yo'naltirilishi kerakligini qo'shimcha qildi.

Komaroff, uyqu bo'yicha mutaxassis emas, balki klinik epidemiolog, glimfatik tizim, "miya chiqindilari", uyqusizlik va boshqa nevrologik kasalliklar o'rtasidagi bog'liqlik ilgari amalga oshirilganidan ko'ra kengroq bo'lishi mumkinligini aytdi. U aytdi Sog'liqni saqlashni boshqaruvchi boshqaruvchi uyqu muhim fiziologik funktsiyani bajarishi aniq, shuning uchun uni yaxshiroq tushunish juda muhimdir.

"O'ylaymanki, odamlar biologik jihatdan majburiy bo'lgan va umrining uchdan bir qismini o'tkazishga majbur bo'lgan har qanday faoliyatni tushunish juda muhim, chunki bu juda qiziq, chunki uyquning biologik sabablarini yaxshiroq tushunish. ehtimol inson salomatligini yaxshilaydi ", dedi u.


Uxlash paytida miyaning javob berish chastotalari - Biologiya

Miya to'lqinlarining chastotalari va amp effektlari

Ma'lumki, miya to'lqinlari turli xil tashqi stimullar, shu jumladan eshitish stimulyatsiyasi bilan o'zgarishi mumkin.

SmartSound-ning vazifalaridan biri-miya to'lqinlarining maqsadli chastotalarini rag'batlantirish uchun ritmik eshitish stimulyatsiyasi va boshqa texnikalar yordamida keng spektrli, dalillarga asoslangan foyda va effektlarni targ'ib qilish.

Masalan, Mini-D-Stressni sinab ko'rganlar, bu borada qiziqarli (va umid qilamanki, yoqimli) effektlarni payqagan bo'lishlari mumkin.

Bir qarashda, miya to'lqinlarining asosiy chastotalari bilan bog'liq bo'lgan ba'zi afzalliklar va funktsiyalar

  • Gamma: o'rganish, kontsentratsiya va o'zini nazorat qilish
  • Beta : energiya darajasining oshishi, diqqat, hushyorlik va aniq fikrlash
  • Alfa : bosh og'rig'i, xotira, engil tashvish va ijodiy oqim holatlarida yordam
  • Teta : hissiy ishlov berish, chuqur yengillik, sezgi, xotirani mustahkamlashga yordam berishi mumkin
  • Delta/pastki delta : og'riqni engillashtirishi, immunitet funktsiyalari, shifo va chuqur uyquga yordam berishi mumkin

F yoki batafsil ma'lumotni quyida o'qing.

Qo'shimcha ma'lumot

SmartSound foydalanuvchilari manfaati uchun biz klinik tadqiqotlar va tadqiqotlardan olingan miya to'lqinlarining chastotalari haqida umumiy xulosalarni taqdim etdik. Bu vizual va/yoki eshitish stimulyatsiyasi yordamida miya to'lqinlarining chastotali stimulyatsiyasini o'z ichiga oladi.

Bu birinchi navbatda ta'lim maqsadlari uchun mo'ljallangan bo'lsa -da, bu bizning texnologiyalarimizdan foydalanayotganlarga o'zlari boshdan kechirayotgan umumiy ta'sir va afzalliklarni yaxshiroq tushunishga yordam berishi mumkin.

Garchi aniq chastotalar chegaralari tadqiqotchilar tomonidan haligacha munozara qilinayotgan bo'lsa -da, pastdagilar odatda bir necha Xertzga to'g'ri keladi. (Oddiylik uchun biz lambda, mu va epsilon chastotalarini istisno qildik).

Ba'zi olimlarning ta'kidlashicha, bu tasniflash uchun qulay vosita bo'lsa -da, u chastotalar o'rtasida mavjud bo'lgan murakkab, asosan noma'lum o'zaro bog'liqlikni hisobga olmaydi. Miya to'lqinlarini o'rganish juda rivojlanayotgan soha.

O'qish, xotira, fikrlash, vazifalarni qayta ishlash, vosita funktsiyasi va sezgir bog'lanish bilan shug'ullanadigan miya markazlarining integratsiyasi/sinxronizatsiyasi ijodkorlik, tushunish, kontsentratsiya va impuls nazoratini oshiradi.

Ko'pgina tadqiqotchilar, bu yuqori chastotali miya to'lqinini bilish va miyaning optimal ishlash chastotasi deb hisoblashadi - ayniqsa, 40 Gts. Gamma boshqa funktsiyalarni birlashtirgan "dvigateldagi yog '" ga o'xshash ma'lumotlarni miyada golografik tarzda sintezlaydigan va birlashtiruvchi majburiy mexanizm bo'lib xizmat qiladi.

Tadqiqotlar gamma chastotalarini yuqori aqliy faoliyat, o'z-o'zini anglash, o'zini tuta bilish, muammolarni hal qilish, bolalarda tilni rivojlantirish, xotira va ong va idrokning ko'p jihatlari bilan bog'ladi. Aslida, behushlik paytida gamma faolligi yo'qolishi ma'lum bo'lgani uchun, ongning o'zi uchun zarur bo'lishi mumkin.

Gamma faolligi past bo'lganlar ruhiy tushkunlik, stress, fokuslanmagan yoki dürtüsel fikrlashga ko'proq moyil ekanligi aniqlandi. Klinisyenlar gamma chastotali stimulyatsiyadan til va o'qish nuqsonlarini (ayniqsa bolalarda), depressiya, DEHB, Altsgeymer (bu kasallikka chalinganlar odatda gamma faolligi juda kam) va hatto autizmni davolashda yordam berish uchun foydalanganlar.

Gamma kattalarda ham, bolalarda ham miyaning deyarli barcha sohalarida bo'lishi mumkin va ma'lum bo'lishicha, biz bir vaqtning o'zida ikkala yarim sharda ham ma'lumotlarni qayta ishlashda, REM paytida, yangi miya davrlarining shakllanishida, eshitish va boshqa shakllarda "portlashlar" paytida paydo bo'lamiz. hissiy qayta ishlash.

Buddaviy rohiblarning frontal loblarida "mehr -shafqat meditatsiyasi" bo'yicha katta tajribaga ega bo'lgan dam olish darajasi odatdagidan ancha yuqori bo'lgan, bu ham uzoq muddatli mashg'ulotlardan neyroplastik o'zgarishni ko'rsatadi.

Kitlar va delfinlar ham shu chastotada ishlashlari ma'lum.

Gamma chastotalari ko'pchilik SmartSound protokollariga kiritilgan va ularni boshqa chastotalar bilan birlashtirishi yoki birlashtirishi mumkin.

Fokusli, tahliliy, oqilona, ​​uyg'oq, ogohlik, diqqatni jamlash, sezgi idrokining kuchayishi, hissiy barqarorlik, ko'rish keskinligi, vosita faoliyatini kognitiv nazorat qilish.

Beta - bu "tez" yuqori chastotali tarmoqli kengligi, odatda tashqi xabardorlik, to'liq hushyorlik va tezkor fikrlash bilan bog'liq. Beta ishlab chiqarish odatda 12 yoshdan boshlanadi va, ehtimol, siz o'qiyotganingizda, sizning asosiy chastotangiz.

Beta 2 klinik tadkikotlari (pastga qarang) uni o'zini va atrofini, energiya, hushyorlik, faollik, aqliy qobiliyat va diqqatni jamlash, kontsentratsiyaning eng yuqori holatlari, motivatsiya va, ehtimol, ko'rish keskinligi bilan bog'liq. Bu, shuningdek, miyaning umumiy faolligini rag'batlantirish orqali "aqlli dorilar" yoki nootropiklarga o'xshash IQning oshishi bilan bog'liq.

Beta-faollik bizni uxlashga to'sqinlik qiladigan "chayqaluvchi/ maymun-aql" ning haddan tashqari faolligini keltirib chiqaradi.

ADD, DEHB va depressiya kabi "sekin to'lqin" holatiga ega bo'lganlar, odatda, past to'lqinli faollik ko'rsatadilar va kunduzgi beta faolligini oshirish va/yoki sekinroq chastotalarni blokirovka qilish uchun stimulyatorlarni buyurishlari mumkin.

Beta diapazoni uchta toifaga bo'linadi:

12,5 Gts - 15 Gts): Beta to'lqinlarining sekin yoki past faolligi. (Quyida SMR ga qarang).

15 Gts-23 Gts): Bu o'rta darajadagi beta tez-tez shifokorlar tomonidan ishlatiladi. Ba'zilar, xususan, 18,5 Gts ni diqqat va kontsentratsiya uchun optimal chastota deb hisoblashadi.

23 Gts-40 Gts): Bu tezkor beta-faollik, ayniqsa yuqori diapazonda, giper-qo'zg'alish/giper-hushyorlik, tashvish, stress, paranoya, ortiqcha energiya va "charchoq" bilan bog'liq.

Klinik qo'llanmalarda Beta 1 va 2 miya to'lqini stimulyatsiyasi uyqusizlik va hushyorlikni, diqqatni jamlashni, kayfiyatni ko'tarishni, umumiy kognitiv ishlashni va depressiya va DEHBga yordam berish uchun ishlatilgan.

Jismoniy va ruhiy xotirjamlik, impulsiv bo'lmagan, tashqi xabardorlik energiya oqimining yaxshilanishi, sog'lom uyqu holatini ko'rsatadi

SMR ritmlari Mu to'lqini va "oqim holatlari" bilan bog'liq, ular bo'shashgan, ammo hushyor, diqqatli va diqqatli. Ba'zi tadqiqotchilar ularni "harakatsiz" ritm deb atashadi. Ular, ayniqsa, jismoniy mashqlar bajarilgandan so'ng, tana harakatsiz bo'lganda va klinik sinovlarda, uyqu bilan bog'liq muammolarni, shu jumladan bezovtalanmagan oyoq sindromini davolashda yordam beradi.

Sportchilarda va boshqa jismonan baquvvat odamlarda SMRning yuqori darajasi qayd etilgan, bu ularning sog'lom uyqu rejimini ham aks ettirishi mumkin, uyqusizlik bilan kasallanganlar esa odatda odatdagidan past bo'ladi.

SMR miya to'lqinlarini rag'batlantirish klinisyenlar tomonidan kontsentratsiyaga, o'qish tezligiga va energiya darajasiga, shuningdek epilepsiya, DEHB, uyqusizlik, depressiya, tashvish, stress va autizmga yordam berish uchun ishlatilgan. Bu, ayniqsa, jismoniy tayyorgarligi bo'lmagan yoki jismoniy mashqlar qilmaganlar uchun foydali bo'lishi mumkin.

Ma'lumotni qayta ishlash, xotirjam ong va ichki xabardorlik, ijodiy oqim turli chastotalarning birlashishi, HRV, serotonin ishlab chiqarish, xotira va tushni eslab qolish, uyqudagi bezovta qiluvchi shovqinlarga reaktivlikni oshiradi.

Alfa faolligi 6 yoshdan boshlanadi. Kattalar uchun, biz ko'zlarimizni yumib, tashqi sezgi stimulyatsiyasidan, masalan, "kunduzi tush ko'rish" dan voz kechishni boshlaganimizda, o'ziga xos tinch, ijodiy "oqim" holatini yaratadi. U ko'pincha uyg'onish va uxlash o'rtasidagi ko'prik deb ataladi.

Alfa faoliyati ijodiy, badiiy va tadbirkor odamlarda ko'proq namoyon bo'lishi mumkin. Bu "aha" ijodiy fikrlash va "qutidan tashqarida" fikrlash tajribasi bilan bog'liq. Alfred Eynshteynning EEG monitoringi shuni ko'rsatdiki, u murakkab matematik vazifalarni hal qilishda alfa-bandning izchil faolligini ko'rsatdi.

Tadqiqotlar shuni ko'rsatadiki, yuqori yoki o'rta darajadagi alfa bu turdagi mashg'ulotlarga yordam berishi mumkin bo'lsa, uning past diapazoni juda diqqatli, tanqidiy fikrlash yoki texnik, tafsilotlarga yo'naltirilgan ish uchun teskari bo'lishi mumkin.

Alfa stimulyatsiyasi stress, xavotirlik, giyohvandlik va alkogolga qaramlik, ruhiy tushkunlik, DEHB, autizm, TSSB (alfa faolligini to'sib qo'yishi mumkin), yuqori ko'rsatkichlar va bosh og'rig'idan xalos bo'lish uchun uzoq va muvaffaqiyatli klinik qo'llanmalar tarixiga ega. 10,2 gigagertsli tezlikda, bu qariyalar uchun (odatda yoshi o'tib alfa chastotalarining sekinlashuvini boshdan kechiradi) va yoshlarda ham, katta yoshdagilarda ham xotirani osonlashtirishda yordam beradi.

Alfa chastotalari, shuningdek, vizualizatsiya, meditatsiya, ichki maqsadlarni belgilash jarayonlari va "oqim holati" ni yaxshilash uchun sport psixologiyasi va shaxsiy rivojlanishda uzoq vaqtdan beri birlashishga ega.

Shunisi e'tiborga loyiqki, sport mutaxassislari muvaffaqiyatli harakat yoki strategiya oldidan chap yarim sharda alfa tobora ko'payib borayotganini va ular muvaffaqiyatsizlikka uchraganda beta -ning mos keladigan ko'tarilishini kuzatdilar. Xuddi shunday, Eynshteyn ham hisob-kitoblarida xatolik yuz berganda, alfa-band faolligini beta-ga tushirgani kuzatilgan.

Alfa stimulyatsiyasi, shuningdek, hissiy barqarorlikka, kortizol (asosiy stress gormoni) kamayishiga, serotonin ishlab chiqarishga va yurak urish tezligining o'zgaruvchanligini (HRV) sezilarli yaxshilanishiga yordam beradi. Boshqa tadqiqotlar shuni ko'rsatadiki, alfa/teta chegarasidagi chastotalar miya qon aylanishini yaxshilaydi.

Alfa chastotalari deyarli barcha SmartSound protokollariga kiritilgan.

Xotirani konsolidatsiya qilish ijodkorlik, tasvir va vizualizatsiya, erkin fikrlar, fazoviy navigatsiya vazifalari-ilhom va sezgi, yangi (epizodik) axborotni emotsional qayta ishlash va taklifni kuchaytiradi.

Teta ishlab chiqarish taxminan 2 yoshida boshlanadi. O'ng yarim shardan va miyaning chuqur subkortikal mintaqalaridan kelib chiqqan holda, teta chastotalari qadimdan "bilinçaltının eshigi" deb hisoblangan.

Bu uyquga olib keladigan, past chastotali miya to'lqinlari chuqur yengillik, ijodkorlik, xotirani mustahkamlash, emotsional qayta ishlash, yorqin tasvirlar, ekstrasensor idrok, intuitiv tushunchalar, REM holatlari va boshqa ongsiz faoliyat va hodisalar bilan bog'liq.

Ayniqsa, gipoterapevtlar, "hipnagogik trans" bilan bog'liq bo'lgan teta - o'ng yarim sharga kirish va keraksiz ongsiz xatti -harakatlar va dasturlarni o'zgartirish, normal uyg'onish ongidan tashqarida ma'lumotlarni qabul qilish uchun maqbul holat deb hisoblashadi. o'rganish va xotira. Chuqur bostirilgan hissiy materiallar va bolalik xotiralari, mutaxassislar rahbarligi ostida, tetada osongina ochiladi va chiqariladi.

Juda chuqur meditatsiya, ibodat, hipnotik trans va REM holatida dominant bo'lgan teta, shuningdek, vazopressin va katexolaminni o'z ichiga olgan immunitet funktsiyasi va neyrokimyoviy moddalar bilan bog'liq.

Kunduzi uyg'ongan holda aytilgan teta faolligi sog'lom kattalarda g'ayritabiiy hisoblanadi va depressiya, ADD/DEHB va TSSB kabi sekin to'lqinli sharoitlarni ko'rsatishi mumkin.

Shunga qaramay, 2 yoshdan 6 yoshgacha bo'lgan bolalarda bu odatiy holdir, bu ularning tez o'qish qobiliyatini va jonli, ijodiy tasavvurlarini osonlashtiradi. Aynan ularning "teta yillari" davomida bolaning hayotini shakllantiruvchi asosiy e'tiqodlari, dunyo haqidagi tajribalari va taxminlari ularning ongiga "dasturlashtirilgan".

Shuning uchun ham mehribon, erta ota -ona va xavfsiz, qo'llab -quvvatlanadigan muhit ularning eng yaxshi kelajagi uchun juda muhim va bizniki!

Theta tarmoqli kengligi chuqur yengillik va uyqu protokolida keng qo'llaniladi.

Chuqur uyqusiz uyqu, immunitet, qarishga qarshi gormonlarning tiklanishi va davolovchi gormonlari, kortizolning kamayishi va gipofiz bezidan H.G.H. nihoyatda chuqur yengillik

Delta to'lqinlari tug'ilish paytida mavjud bo'lib, bolalarning uyg'onish holatida 5 yilgacha saqlanib qolishi ma'lum. Delta ham, subdelta ham chuqur, tiklanadigan uyqu va uning ko'plab foydali xususiyatlari uchun juda muhimdir.

Bu juda past chastotali, yuqori amplitudali miya to'lqinlarini ishlab chiqarish paytida biz odatda REM uyqusining 3 va 4 bosqichlarida to'liq hushidan ketamiz va katatonik bo'lamiz. Biroq, miya tekshiruvlari shuni ko'rsatdiki, yogis va rohiblar kabi ilg'or meditatorlar delta holatiga kirishi mumkin. va u erda to'liq ongli ravishda xabardor bo'lib qoling.

Delta jismoniy/emotsional shifo va immunitetning ishlashi, xotirani mustahkamlash, DHEA va melatonin kabi qarishga qarshi gormonlar ishlab chiqarish, stressni sezilarli darajada kamaytirish (limbik tizimni tinchlantirish) va kortizolning pasayishi bilan bog'liq.

Bu, shuningdek, odamning o'sish gormoni (HGH), gamma -gidroksibutirik kislota (GHB) ning gipofizdan chiqarilishi va, albatta, yaxshi tungi uyquning muhim afzalliklari - mushaklarning tez tiklanishi va yog'ning optimal yonishini o'z ichiga oladi!

Delta ishlab chiqarish odatda yoshga qarab kamayadi va o'smirlik davrida uning darajasi taxminan 25%ga kamayishi mumkin. Qariyalar va qariyalar uyqu paytida juda kam delta faolligini ishlab chiqarishi mumkin.

Tadqiqotlar shuni ko'rsatadiki, delta odatda surunkali stress yoki uyqu sharoitida kam ishlab chiqariladi (uyquni o'z ixtiyori bilan tanlaganlarni ham o'z ichiga oladi) va bu chastotaning etishmasligi Parkinson kasalligi, diabet va shizofreniyada rol o'ynashi mumkin.

Ajablanarli joyi yo'qki, delta va sub-delta miya to'lqini stimulyatsiyasining klinik qo'llanilishi, birinchi navbatda, SmartSound singari, uyqusizlik kabi stress va uyqu bilan bog'liq muammolar uchun ishlatiladi.

Shunday qilib, endi biz miya to'lqinlarining chastotalarini o'rganishda to'liq aylanaga keldik.


Har xil miya to'lqinlarining vazifasi nima?

Ned Xerrmann - miya faoliyati modellarini ishlab chiqqan va ularni o'qitish va boshqaruv mashg'ulotlariga birlashtirgan o'qituvchi. 1980 yilda Ned Herrmann guruhini tashkil etishdan oldin u General Electric kompaniyasida menejment bo'yicha ta'limni boshqargan va u erda ko'plab g'oyalarini ishlab chiqqan. Mana uning izohi.

Ma'lumki, miya elektrokimyoviy organ bo'lib, tadqiqotchilar to'liq ishlaydigan miya 10 vatt elektr energiyasini ishlab chiqarishi mumkin deb taxmin qilishgan. Boshqa konservativ tergovchilarning hisob -kitoblariga ko'ra, agar bir vaqtning o'zida bir -biriga bog'langan 10 milliard nerv hujayrasi chiqarilsa, bitta bosh elektrodga qo'yilsa, besh milliondan 50 milliongacha voltga to'g'ri keladi. Agar sizda etarli miqdordagi bosh terisi bo'lsa, siz chiroq lampasini yoqishingiz mumkin edi.

Garchi bu elektr quvvati juda cheklangan bo'lsa ham, u inson miyasiga xos bo'lgan o'ziga xos tarzda sodir bo'ladi. Miyadan chiqadigan elektr faoliyati miya to'lqinlari shaklida namoyon bo'ladi. Bu miya to'lqinlarining to'rtta toifasi bor, ular eng faollikdan eng kam harakatgacha. Miya qo'zg'alganda va aqliy faoliyat bilan faol shug'ullansa, u beta to'lqinlarni hosil qiladi. Bu beta to'lqinlar nisbatan past amplitudali va to'rt xil miya to'lqinlarining eng tezidir. Beta to'lqinlarning chastotasi sekundiga 15 dan 40 tsiklgacha. Beta to'lqinlar - bu kuchli band bo'lgan aqlning xususiyatlari. Faol suhbatda bo'lgan odam beta -versiyada bo'ladi. Munozarachi yuqori beta -versiyada bo'ladi. Nutq o'qituvchi yoki o'qituvchi yoki tok -shou boshlovchisi o'z ishi bilan shug'ullanganda beta -versiyada bo'lardi.

Miya to'lqinining navbatdagi toifasi - chastota bo'yicha. Beta qo'zg'alishni ifodalasa, alfa qo'zg'almaslikni anglatadi. Alfa miya to'lqinlari sekinroq va amplituda balandroq. Ularning chastotasi sekundiga 9 dan 14 tsiklgacha. Vazifani bajarib, dam olish uchun o'tirgan odam ko'pincha alfa holatida bo'ladi. Fikrlash yoki meditatsiya qilish uchun vaqt ajratadigan odam odatda alfa holatida bo'ladi. Konferentsiyadan tanaffus qilib, bog'da yurgan odam ko'pincha alfa holatida bo'ladi.

Keyingi holat, teta miya to'lqinlari, odatda, yanada katta amplituda va sekinroq chastotaga ega. Bu chastota diapazoni odatda sekundiga 5-8 tsikl orasida. Vazifadan vaqt ajratib, xayol surishni boshlagan odam ko'pincha teta miya to'lqinida bo'ladi. Magistral yo'lda ketayotgan va oxirgi besh milni eslay olmasligini bilgan odam tez-tez teta holatida bo'ladi, bu avtomagistralda haydash jarayonidan kelib chiqadi. Haydovchilik vazifasini xavfsiz bajarish uchun haydashning qishloq shaklidagi yo'l bilan taqqoslaganda teta holatini va beta holatini farqlash mumkin edi.

Avtotransportda ko'p yuradigan odamlar tez -tez tetada bo'lgan paytlarida yaxshi fikrlarga ega bo'lishadi. Ochiq havoda yugurayotgan odamlar ko'pincha ruhiy bo'shashish holatiga tushadilar, bu alfaga qaraganda sekinroq va teta holatida ular g'oyalar oqimiga moyil. Bu dush yoki vannada, hatto sochingizni oldirish yoki tarash paytida ham sodir bo'lishi mumkin. Vazifalar shu qadar avtomatik bo'lib ketadiki, siz ulardan ruhiy jihatdan ajralib turishingiz mumkin. Teta holatida sodir bo'lishi mumkin bo'lgan fikr ko'pincha erkin oqimdir va senzura va aybsiz sodir bo'ladi. Odatda bu juda ijobiy ruhiy holat.

Miyaning oxirgi to'lqin holati delta. Bu erda miya to'lqinlari eng katta amplituda va eng sekin chastotada. Odatda ular sekundiga 1,5 dan 4 tsikl oralig'ida markazlashadi. Ular hech qachon nolga tushmaydi, chunki bu sizning miyangiz o'lganligini anglatadi. Ammo chuqur tushsiz uyqu sizni eng past chastotaga olib keladi. Odatda, sekundiga 2-3 tsikl.

Biz yotishdan oldin va uxlashdan oldin bir necha daqiqa o'qiganimizda, biz past beta holatiga tushib qolamiz. Biz kitobni qo'yib, chiroqlarni o'chirib, ko'zimizni yumganimizda, bizning miya to'lqinlarimiz beta, alfa, teta va nihoyat, uxlab qolganimizda deltaga tushadi.

Ma'lumki, odamlar 90 daqiqali tsikllarda tush ko'rishadi. Miya deltasining to'lqin chastotalari teta miya to'lqinlarining chastotasiga ko'payganda, faol tushlar sodir bo'ladi va ko'pincha odam uchun tajribali bo'ladi. Odatda, bu sodir bo'lganda, faol tushga xos bo'lgan tez ko'z harakati bo'ladi. Bu REM deb nomlanadi va bu yaxshi ma'lum bo'lgan hodisa.

Biror kishi uyqudan turishga tayyorgarlik ko'rayotganda, qattiq uyqudan uyg'onganida, miya to'lqini faolligining turli bosqichlarida ularning miya to'lqinlarining chastotasi oshadi. Ya'ni, ular deltadan tetaga, so'ngra alfa va nihoyat, signal o'chganda, beta holatiga ko'tariladi. Agar bu odam signalni qaytarish tugmachasini bossa, ular tez-tez qo'zg'almas holatga tushadi, hatto tetaga tushadi yoki ba'zida deltada uxlab qoladi. Uyg'onish davri mobaynida odamlar teta holatida uzoq vaqt-beshdan 15 daqiqagacha qolishlari mumkin, bu ularga kechagi voqealar haqida erkin fikr yuritishga yoki bo'lajak voqealar haqida o'ylashga imkon beradi. kun. Bu vaqt nihoyatda samarali bo'lishi mumkin va juda mazmunli va ijodiy aqliy faoliyat davri bo'lishi mumkin.

Xulosa qilib aytganda, yuqori amplitudali, past chastotali deltadan past amplitudali, yuqori chastotali beta -gacha bo'lgan to'rtta miya to'lqin holati mavjud. These brainwave states range from deep dreamless sleep to high arousal. The same four brainwave states are common to the human species. Men, women and children of all ages experience the same characteristic brainwaves. They are consistent across cultures and country boundaries.

Research has shown that although one brainwave state may predominate at any given time, depending on the activity level of the individual, the remaining three brain states are present in the mix of brainwaves at all times. In other words, while somebody is an aroused state and exhibiting a beta brainwave pattern, there also exists in that person's brain a component of alpha, theta and delta, even though these may be present only at the trace level.

It has been my personal experience that knowledge of brainwave states enhances a person's ability to make use of the specialized characteristics of those states: these include being mentally productive across a wide range of activities, such as being intensely focused, relaxed, creative and in restful sleep.


Electroencephalography (EEG): An Introductory Text and Atlas of Normal and Abnormal Findings in Adults, Children, and Infants [Internet].

One of the initial goals for EEG interpretation is determination of the background. To gain a complete sense about the background EEG, one should employ a variety of different screening montages to enable several different perspectives of its chief frequencies, amplitude, and degree of synchrony.

Common Physiological Artifacts

Artifacts are common during the wakeful EEG, and one of the first hurdles of EEG interpretation is distinguishing these from cerebral signal. Most notable is the presence of low-amplitude, high-frequency activity arising from scalp muscles, often frontally dominant but seen throughout the tracing. Rapid eye movements (REMs), resulting from saccades and spontaneous changes of gaze, may be seen as small, rapid deflections in frontal regions. Extremely large-voltage, diphasic potentials in frontal regions result from blinks. This occurs because the eye is a dipole, relatively positive at the corneal surface and negative at the retinal surface, and the eye moves characteristically upward during a blink according to Bell phenomenon, resulting in a moving charge and potential change. Since the positivity of the cornea rotates upward toward frontal electrode sites, a transient positivity, then negativity is recorded there. Another common artifact during the waking EEG is caused by swallowing and the related movement of the tongue, which similar to the eye is a dipole and causes a slow potential with superimposed muscle artifact. See Appendix 4 for representative common EEG artifacts seen during wakefulness.

The Posterior Dominant Rhythm

Healthy adults typically manifest relatively low-amplitude, mixed-frequency background rhythms, also termed desynchronized. When the patient is relaxed with eyes closed, the background is usually characterized by the posteriorly dominant alpha rhythm, also known simply as the posterior dominant rhythm. (7 -rasm). The alpha rhythm, or alpha, is attenuated in amplitude and frequency and often completely ablated by eye opening. Alpha amplitude is usually highly symmetrical, although it may be of somewhat higher amplitude over the right than left posterior head regions (greater than 50% amplitude asymmetry is considered abnormal, with the abnormality usually on the side of the lower amplitude). Alpha frequency normally remains symmetrical, so if one side is slower than the other, an abnormality of cerebral functioning exists on the slower side. The alpha generator is thought to be located within the occipital lobes. While some normal patients lack well-formed alpha activity, the frequency, symmetry, and reactivity of alpha merits special attention and comment in any EEG report. There are several variants of the alpha rhythm, and they include temporal alpha, characterized by independent alpha activity over the temporal regions seen in older patients, frontal alpha, consisting of alpha activity over the anterior head regions, which may be related to drugs, anesthesia, or following arousal from sleep (Note: When invariant and unreactive to any stimuli in a comatose patient, this variant is pathological and represents an alpha coma pattern.) or paradoxical alpha, which is a return of alpha activity with an alerting stimulus or eye opening.

7 -rasm.

The posterior dominant alpha rhythm. The normal background EEG during wakefulness contains posteriorly dominant, symmetrical, and reactive alpha rhythm. Alpha activity is more prominent in amplitude during relaxed, eyes-closed wakefulness and demonstrates (more. )

Other Features of the Normal Waking Background

The remainder of the normal waking EEG is usually composed of lower amplitude beta frequencies in the fronto-centro-temporal head regions (see Figure 8). Beta frequencies are generally over 13 Hz and of low amplitude. Beta is often enhanced during drowsiness, seen in a precentral distribution, and felt to be related to the functions of the sensorimotor cortex. When beta is prominent in amplitude, either in the frontal or generalized distribution, it is likely a result of the use of sedating drugs such as benzodiazepines or barbiturates. In this sense, it is a mild abnormality of the background and often referred to as 𠇎xcess beta” (Figure 8).

8 -rasm.

Excess beta activity. In example (a), generalized excess beta activity is shown in a modified alternating bipolar montage. In example (b), a very prominent frontally maximal beta rhythm is noted in this slightly drowsy 32-year-old woman, very likely as (more. )

Sometimes, a prominent alpha-range frequency of 8 to 12 Hz is seen over the central head regions, termed the mu rhythm (Figure 9). Mu is seen in between 20 and 40 percent of normal adults, is characterized by arch-shaped (arciform) waves occurring either unilaterally or bilaterally over the central regions, and is prominent during drowsiness. Mu is unrelated to eye opening or closure and reacts to movement, somatosensory stimulus, or the thought of movement. It is thought to be generated in the rolandic region of the frontal and parietal lobes in relation to functions of the sensorimotor cortices. The technologist should instruct the patient to wiggle their thumb to distinguish mu from alpha mu will attenuate, whereas alpha is unchanged, by movement or intention to move.

9 -rasm.

Mu rhythms. (a) A prominent Mu rhythm is seen over the right central region. Note the arciform waves of approximate alpha-range frequency of 8 to 12 Hz. Mu is reactive to movement or the thought of movement, unlike alpha activity, which is reactive instead (more. )

Slower Background Rhythms

Occasional slower theta (4𠄷 Hz) or even delta (1𠄳 Hz) frequencies transiently may be seen during normal wakefulness, but usually these slower activities only become prominent during drowsiness (Figure 10). In children, adolescents, young adults, and some elderly individuals, it is frequent and entirely normal for there to be 𠇍rowsy bursts” of generalized theta�lta frequency activity on the EEG (Figure 10). Intermittent or pervasive, focal or generalized, theta or delta frequency, range slowing of the background in a vigilant adult is abnormal and indicates either focal, regional, or generalized cerebral dysfunction (see section on Abnormal Background for further discussion on the significance of background slowing and for example Figures). An additional normal background phenomenon is the occurrence of lambda waves (Figure 11). Lambda is elicited by pattern viewing, having the configuration of the Greek letter lambda (Λ) and is a surface positive, occipitally predominant waveform.

10 -rasm.

Background in drowsiness. Normal EEG during drowsiness in an 8-year-old child, illustrating background theta and delta frequency slowing and a 𠇍rowsy burst” of frontally dominant theta activity in the third and fourth seconds. Such findings (more. )

11 -rasm.

Lambda waves. Lambda waves over posterior head regions, elicited by complex pattern viewing. Note the surface positive waveforms over both occipital regions. Longitudinal bipolar montage. Copyright 2013. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. (Ko'proq. )


What Happens In The Brain When You Have A Memory Flashback

What is the science behind flashbacks? originally appeared on Quora: the place to gain and share knowledge, empowering people to learn from others and better understand the world.

Answer by Natalie Engelbrecht, Registered psychotherapist, on Quora:

What is the science behind flashbacks?

“PTSD is not the person refusing to let go of the past, but the past refusing to let go of the person.”

There are wounds that never show on the body, they are deeper and more hurtful than anything that bleeds.

Trauma results in the amygdala increasing the fear response, but being less accurate in remembering items in the memory, while the hippocampus was down-regulated decreasing associations in the memory. Basically the amygdala encode certain items in the memory as triggers and the hippocampus does not integrate the various items in the memory.

When trauma happens, the way the mind remembers an event is altered. These memory disturbances can create vidid involuntary memories that enter consciousness causing the person to re-experience the event. These are known as flashbacks, and they happen in PTSD and Complex PTSD.

Research has identified that a distressing experience has different effects on two parts of the brain: the amygdala and the hippocampus. When traumatic events occur, the amygdala (involved in emotions) strongly encodes the traumatic memory while the hippocampus (involved in storing new memories) is only weakly activated.

Normal memories integrate via moving from the limbic system thalamus and amygdala to the frontal lobe, as well as from the right hemisphere across to the left hemisphere. This allows for the processing and integration of memories. In trauma this process is disrupted and the integration of what happened does not occur causing the memory to be frozen in time and unable to be logically understood.

The hippocampus is important for forming associations so that the different parts of a memory can be later retrieved as a single event. While the amygdala is involved in processing emotional information and making basic responses to things associated with fear, such as recoiling from a snake.

Trauma causes the opposite to happen. The amygdala instead up-regulates increasing fear while the hippocampal processing is decreased, disrupting its ability to bind and distort memories into a single memory.

Brain imaging revealed that negative memories showed an increased activity in the amygdala however, how the items in the memory fit together was not remembered. Also, the activity in the hippocampus was reduced, thus reducing associations. This results in strong memories for the negative content of an event without the context of the event being encoded. This causes the trigger to activate the same response in different situations as the brain is unable to know that the same thing is not happening.

Basically if there was a blue towel when the memory happened, the brain will activate the same sequence of events (as if the person is back in time) when a blue towel is seen. Let me expand on this by an example from my past.

One of my traumatic memories took place in a VW Baby Blue Beetle when I was five. When I recall the memory I see items as seperate. The beige leather of the seats, the baby blue car, the Little Red Riding Hood doll on the seat, the long drive way, the garage, the dark, me running. I do not see the memory as a whole. Each item is independent. Before I had done significant work on my CPTSD any of those items could activate a flashback independently. Seeing a Red Riding story could have me back in the past, activating the same sequence of events, as if it was there now running in the dark. Because my left brain has not had access to the information, it could not understand the memory as something that was in the past. The memory remained in the right brain which said that the event was happening now. And because the memory did not have access to my right frontal lobe it could not be processed into a whole that was a memory rather than a series of independent items that could activate the memory in the brain.

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Alpha brain waves:

Alpha brain waves occur between 8 - 13 Hz i.e.,the alpha state operates at a lower cycle, 7-14 cycles per second level. In general, the alpha rhythm is the prominent EEG wave pattern of an adult who is awake but relaxed with eyes closed.

When we relax and clear our minds of wandering thoughts or simply choose to ignore them, our brains generate alpha waves. In the alpha state, one is open to suggestion as the conscious logical mind is subdued.

Each region of the brain has a characteristic alpha rhythm but alpha waves of the greatest amplitude are recorded from the occipital and parietal regions of the cerebral cortex. Psychic experiences can happen in the alpha state. Both daydreaming and sleep dreaming occur while in the alpha state.


Astrocytic Ca 2+ signaling is reduced during sleep and is involved in the regulation of slow wave sleep

Astrocytic Ca 2+ signaling has been intensively studied in health and disease but has not been quantified during natural sleep. Here, we employ an activity-based algorithm to assess astrocytic Ca 2+ signals in the neocortex of awake and naturally sleeping mice while monitoring neuronal Ca 2+ activity, brain rhythms and behavior. We show that astrocytic Ca 2+ signals exhibit distinct features across the sleep-wake cycle and are reduced during sleep compared to wakefulness. Moreover, an increase in astrocytic Ca 2+ signaling precedes transitions from slow wave sleep to wakefulness, with a peak upon awakening exceeding the levels during whisking and locomotion. Finally, genetic ablation of an important astrocytic Ca 2+ signaling pathway impairs slow wave sleep and results in an increased number of microarousals, abnormal brain rhythms, and an increased frequency of slow wave sleep state transitions and sleep spindles. Our findings demonstrate an essential role for astrocytic Ca 2+ signaling in regulating slow wave sleep.

Manfaatlar to'qnashuvi to'g'risidagi bayonot

The authors declare no competing interests.

Raqamlar

Fig. 1. Two-photon imaging of Ca 2+…

Fig. 1. Two-photon imaging of Ca 2+ signals in awake and naturally sleeping mice.

Fig. 2. Astrocytic Ca 2+ signaling is…

Fig. 2. Astrocytic Ca 2+ signaling is reduced during sleep and is sleep state specific.

Fig. 3. Astrocytic Ca 2+ signals during…

Fig. 3. Astrocytic Ca 2+ signals during sleep are most frequent in processes.

Fig. 4. Spatial distribution of astrocytic Ca…

Fig. 4. Spatial distribution of astrocytic Ca 2+ signals across sleep-wake states.

Fig. 5. Astrocytic Ca 2+ signals increase…

Fig. 5. Astrocytic Ca 2+ signals increase prominently upon awakening.

Fig. 6. Correlation of astrocytic and neuronal…

Fig. 6. Correlation of astrocytic and neuronal Ca 2+ signals.

Fig. 7. Astrocytic Ca 2+ signaling during…

Fig. 7. Astrocytic Ca 2+ signaling during sleep is dependent on the IP 3 yo'l.

Fig. 8. Astrocytic IP 3 -mediated Ca…

Fig. 8. Astrocytic IP 3 -mediated Ca 2+ signaling pathway regulates SWS.

Fig. 9. Astrocytic IP 3 -mediated Ca…

Fig. 9. Astrocytic IP 3 -mediated Ca 2+ signaling during sleep spindles.


Thinking at you

The latest advance in human BBIs represents another leap forward. This is where transmission of conscious thought was achieved between two human beings in August last year.

Using a combination of technologies – including EEG, the Internet and TMS – the team of researchers was able to transmit a thought all the way from India to France.

Words were first coded into binary notation (i.e. 1 = “hola” 0 = “ciao”). Then the resulting EEG signal from the person thinking the 1 or the 0 was transmitted to a robot-driven TMS device positioned over the visual cortex of the receiver’s brain.

In this case, the TMS pulses resulted in the perception of flashes of light for the receiver, who was then able to decode this information into the original words (hola or ciao).

Now that these BBI technologies are becoming a reality, they have a huge potential to impact the way we interact with other humans. And maybe even the way we communicate with animals through direct transmission of thought.

Such technologies have obvious ethical and legal implications, however. So it is important to note that the success of BBIs depends upon the conscious coupling of the subjects.

In this respect, there is a terrific potential for BBIs to one day be integrated into psychotherapies, including cognitive behavioural therapy, learning of motor skills, or even more fantastical situations akin to remote control of robots on distant planets or Vulcan-like mind melds a la Star Trek.

Soon, it might well be possible to really experience walking a mile (or a kilometre) in another person’s shoes.


Videoni tomosha qiling: TOYIB UXLASH UCHUN 5 TAVSIYA. ЯХШИ УХЛАШ УСУЛЛАРИ. 5 ТАВСИЯ (Yanvar 2022).